The Impact of Fireworks Noise on the Acoustic Climate in Urban Areas
The paper consists the issues of identification, analysis and assessment of impulsive noise of fireworks and acoustic climate during New Year’s Eve. Material presented refers to measurements of time series, frequency spectrum and values of noise parameters of selected fireworks. It was presented, among others, that the measured values exceed the criteria for occupational noise (LCpeak), due to the direct hazard of hearing loss, from 1.8 dB at a distance of 25 m and 6.2 dB at a distance of 15 m. Also this work discusses results of impulsive noise measurements of fireworks recorded during New Year’s Eve in years 2016–2017. Material refers to measurements at three measurement points spread over the city of Kraków. Obtained results were compared with typical noise levels for night time in urban area, indicating also the main sources of annoyance and hazard from this type of noise.
Babu V., Azhagurajan A. (2010), Interpretation of safe parameters of chemical compositions and noise level of the fireworks crackers, Injury Prevention, 16, (Suppl. 1): A58.
Brookhouser, P.E., Worthington D.W., Kelly W.J. (1992), Noise-induced hearing loss in children, The Laryngoscope, 102, 6, 645–655.
Clark W.W., Bohne B.A. (1999), Effects of noise on hearing, Jama, 281, 17, 1658–1659.
Deželak F., Čudina M. (2004), Statistical description of noise from firecrackers, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 90, 3, 457–466.
Directive 2013/29/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 June 2013 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of pyrotechnic articles (recast).
Fireworks and security (2017), [in Polish: Fajerwerki a bezpieczeństwo], http://www.policja.pl/pol/aktualnosci/120584,Fajerwerki-a-bezpieczenstwo.html, retrieved 08.09.2018.
Fleischer G., Mueller R., Bache T., Heppelmann G. (2003), Auditory effects of some Millennium celebrations in Germany, Zeitschrift fur Audiologie, 42, 3, 106–117.
Gupta D., Vishwakarma S.K. (1989), Toy weapons and firecrackers: a source of hearing loss, The Laryngoscope, 99, 3, 330–334.
IEC 61672-1:2013 Electroacoustics – Sound level meters – Part 1: Specifications.
ISO 1996-1:2016 Acoustics – Description, measurement and assessment of environmental noise – Part 1: Basic quantities and assessment procedures.
ISO 1996-2:2017 Acoustics – Description, measurement and assessment of environmental noise – Part 2: Determination of sound pressure levels.
ISO 1999:2013 Acoustics – Estimation of noise-induced hearing loss.
ISO 10843:1997 Acoustics – Methods for the description and physical measurement of single impulses or series of impulses.
Journal of Laws No. 2002, 117, item 1007, as amended [in Polish: Ustawa z dnia 21 czerwca 2002 r. o materiałach wybuchowych przeznaczonych do użytku cywilnego, Dz.U. 2002, Nr 117, poz. 1007 z późn. zm.].
Korbiel T., Stępień B., Batko W., Barański R., Mleczko D., Pawlik P., Blaut J. (2017), Recognition of the 24-hour noise exposure of a human, Archives of Acoustics, 42, 4, 601–607.
Kryter K.D. (2013), The effects of noise on man, Elsevier.
Kukulski B. (2017), The research on objective parameters dedicated to differentiate impulsive noise events, Proceedings of the 46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, Hong Kong, pp. 4513–4522.
Maassen M. et al. (2001), Ear damage caused by leisure noise, Noise and Health, 4, 13, 1–16.
Maglieri D.J., Henderson H.R. (1973), Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 54, 5, 1224–1227.
Passos R.S., Carvalho A., Rocha C. (2015), Exposure to firework noise in festivals, Procedings of the Euronoise 2015, Maastricht, pp. 1–6.
Plontke S., Dietz K., Pfeffer C., Zenner H.P. (2002), The incidence of acoustic trauma due to New Year's firecrackers, European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 259, 5, 247–252.
PN-EN 15947-4:2016-02, Pyrotechnic articles. Fireworks, Categories F1, F2 and F3. Test methods.
PN-ISO 1996-2:1999/A1:2002, Acoustics – Description and measurement of environmental noise – Part 2: Acquisition of data pertinent to land use. Amendment A1.
Regulation of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of June 7, 2017, concerning the highest allowable concentrations and intensities of harmful agents in the work environment, Journal of Laws 2017, item 1348.
Russell M.S. (2009), The chemistry of fireworks, Royal Society of Chemistry.
Segal S., Eviatar E., Lapinsky J., Shlamkovitch N., Kessler A. (2003), Inner ear damage in children due to noise exposure from toy cap pistols and firecrackers: a retrospective review of 53 cases, Noise and Health, 5, 18, 13–18.
Smith G.A., Knapp J.F., Barnett T.M., Shields B.J. (1996), The rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air: fireworks-related injuries to children, Pediatrics, 98, 1, 1–9.
Smoorenburg G.F. (1993), Risk of noise-induced hearing loss following exposure to Chinese firecrackers, International Journal of Audiology, 32, 6, 333–343.
Tandon R. et al. (2012), Firecracker injuries during Diwali festival: The epidemiology and impact of legislation in Delhi, Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India, 45, 1, 97.
The National Council on Fireworks Safety, Inc., http://www.fireworkssafety.org/home/, retrieved 08.09.2018.
Ward W.D., Glorig A. (1961), A case of firecracker-induced hearing loss, The Laryngoscope, 71, 12, 1590–1596.
Wszołek T. (2015), Tonal and impulsive adjustment for noise source rating levels, Progress of Acoustics, Polish Acoustical Society, Wroclaw Division, pp. 413–426.
Copyright © Polish Academy of Sciences & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN)